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SowaApolinex
Apolinex description
Apolinex - Digital Human ModelingApolinex - Digital Human Modeling. The software system devoted to ergonomics modeling and design in the AutoCAD environment.

The system's uses anthropometric mannequins, models vision capabilities, and allows for biomechanical analysis of the workload.

The central element of the proposed approach is a system for generating specific models of the human body. The three-dimensional mannequin (model) is available inside an AutoCAD at any given time of the design process.

In addition, it is possible to generate the human being model field of view and simulating what real persons would see if they were looking in the specified direction.

Apolinex has also the ability to calculate joint moments for specific body segments to assess the biomechanical workload. The system generates geometrical data for a given mannequin and calculates joint moments taking into consideration specific loads handled in the hands.

Generating virtual manikins in AutoCad
Anthropometry: manikin generator in Apolinex The Apolinex software allows for building virtual representations of the typical humans specified by percentiles of the body height. Threedimensional digital human being model is available within the AutoCad graphical user inteface and can be applied in any stage of the design process conducted in this system.
The appropriate manikin is defined by the user in the dialogue window, in which one specifies:
  • Nationality,
  • Gender,
  • Height centile (from 2.5 to 97.5),
  • Manikin fraphical type (stick, standard),
  • Working posture (sitting or standing),
  • Body build type (thin, medium and heavy: 5, 50, 95 centiles of each segment circumference).
After all human body elements have been defined, the user points to the location on the design scene, where the mannequin should be placed. The system will then construct appropriate mannequin model.


Anthropometrical design using virtual manikins
Anthropometry: Application of Apolinex to the design Apolinex uses population data described by Pheasant (1991) as a basis for specification of design parameters activation of the APOLINEX system, after its installation in the appropriate files of AutoCAD, includes recalling of the hierarchically built set of menu options on the computer screen (that is, ruler on the right hand side of the AutoCAD screen).

Selection of specific options involves pointing with the help of a mouse to an appropriate segment (or section with the specific name in the menu), and activation of the confirm key. The basic functions that control the motion of the mannequin allow for movement of any segment or the whole mannequin.

The body segments can be moved using rotation around the appropriate axis, with help of the local coordinates which can be seen on the computer screen, and which are accessible from the list of screen menu elements. The basic way of performing the body motion is based on one or two clicks of the mouse. First, using the menu, one determines the axis of rotation (up- down, left-right, around). Next, with the help of a cursor, one can mark specific elements and, consequently, move them around as needed.

The basic Apolinex features enable the user to perform fast analyses of the spatial relationships in the virtual design scene. If, for instance, one designs sitting workplace, the use of two threshold manikins, that is 5th and 95th centile, will provide the sitting pan range of regulation necessary for the selected population.

If the working activities include the operation of devices requiring manipulation, one may specify minimal distances to those objects by choosing a 5 centile individual and positioning his body segments in such a way that they simulate the operation process of those tools.
  • Visibility assessment in the design process
    Visibility: Application of Apolinex to the visibility verification In any time the designer can produce a basic field of view of the manikin. It is also possible to generate the grid which shows the visual field items at places specified by solid angles. The eye sight line is set horizontally in relation to the floor, however it can be modified according to the designer's need, just like any other body segment.

  • Biomechanical workload analysis
    Torques: Application of Apolinex to work load analysis The Apolinex can also be applied for work load analysis. It is being done by calculating joint moments for specific body segments to assess the biomechanical workload. The system generates geometrical data for a given mannequin and then calculates joint moments taking into consideration specific loads put in the manikin's hands.

    The diagrams of the joint moments are generated for two selected from the scene manikins simultaneously. This allows for making direct comparisons of various postures and design solutions.


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